What are the sexually transmitted diseases that can be cured? More than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites are known to be transmitted through sexual contact. Eight of these pathogens are related to the highest incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. Of these, 4 are currently curable: syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. The other 4 are viral infections that are incurable: hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus (HSV or herpes), HIV, and human papillomavirus (HPV).
A person can have an STI without showing symptoms of sexually transmitted disease
STIs are transmitted predominantly through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Some STIs can also be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding.
A person can have an STI without showing symptoms of illness. Common symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain.
scope of the problem
STIs have a profound impact on sexual and reproductive health around the world.
More than 1 million STIs are acquired every day. In 2020, the WHO estimated 374 million new infections with one of four STIs: chlamydia (129 million), gonorrhea (82 million), syphilis (7.1 million), and trichomoniasis (156 million).
More than 490 million people were estimated to be living with genital HSV (herpes) infection in 2016. And approximately 300 million women have HPV infection, the leading cause of cervical cancer. It is estimated that 296 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B worldwide. Both HPV and hepatitis B infections can be prevented with vaccination.
When used correctly and consistently, condoms offer one of the most effective methods of protection against STIs., including HIV. Condoms also protect against unwanted pregnancy in consensual sex. Although very effective, condoms do not offer protection against STIs that cause extragenital ulcers (ie, syphilis or genital herpes). Whenever possible, condoms should be used for all vaginal and anal sex.
There are safe and highly effective vaccines available for 2 viral STIs: Hepatitis B and HPV. These vaccines have represented great advances in the prevention of STIs. By the end of 2020, the HPV vaccine had been introduced as part of routine immunization programs in 111 countries, most of them high- and middle-income.
HPV vaccination could prevent the deaths of millions of women over the next decade in low- and middle-income countries, where the majority of cervical cancer cases occur, if high (>80%) coverage is achieved of vaccination of young women (from 11 to 15 years). be achieved.
Research to develop herpes and HIV vaccines is well advanced, with several candidate vaccines in early clinical development. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the vaccine to prevent meningitis (MemB) is cross-protective against gonorrhea. More research is needed on vaccines against chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis.
Other biomedical interventions to prevent some STIs include adult male circumcision and microbicides.