What is it and what complications can it cause?

What is it and what complications can it cause?

Bariatric surgery is a type of surgery that is used for those people with obesity who, despite having exercised and/or dieted, have not managed to lose weight and achieve their goals.

Types of bariatric surgery

Depending on what we are looking for, we can find restrictive, malabsotive and mixed techniques.

restrictive techniques

These types of techniques consist of restricting the volume of the stomach in order to reach a state of satiety much faster and longer. This makes it mandatory to modify the eating habit since, if not, pain, vomiting, etc.

These types of techniques only affect the stomach, so they are achieved more physiological techniques, less aggressive and fewer complications.

Malabsorptive techniques

Although they were used during the 1950s through the 1970s, they quickly stopped using them due to the number of complications, both metabolic and nutritional, forcing re-intervention with even more complications.

mixed techniques

These types of techniques act on the stomach, reducing its capacity, and on the intestine, reducing its ability to absorb nutrients. Depending on what is sought, they will be more restrictive or malabsorptive.

obesity

Negative effects caused

The regulation of intake depends on the balance between the sensation of hunger and satiety. This balance is controlled by both the central nervous system and the vegetative system. The complications could be divided depending on the generic complications in people with obesity, the complications of bariatric surgery itself and the medical complications in the patient undergoing bariatric surgery.

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Own complications in the person with obesity

They usually occur during the perioperative period and in the immediate postoperative period, and there may be:

  1. Complications due to anesthesia: Difficult intubation, oxygen desaturation due to abnormal elevation of the intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt effect, abnormal uptake of anesthetic agents by adipose tissue and subsequent release with the consequent prolongation and deepening of their effect, etc.
  2. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): It is very common, leading to pulmonary thromboembolism.
  3. Rhabdomyolysis: It is rare, but it is a diagnostic syndrome characterized by the skeletal muscle necrosis and release of toxic intracellular muscle substances into the bloodstream.

Complications of surgery

  1. Intra-abdominal hemorrhages.
  2. Intestinal obstruction.
  3. Stenosis and anastomotic mouth ulcer: It is due to acid/alkaline reflux or gastrojejunal passage stenosis.
  4. Gastric stump cancer: It is known that the risk of this cancer increases 15-20 years after gastrectomy.
  5. Dumping syndrome: It is characterized by vasodilation associated with vegetative courtship in the immediate postprandial period.
  6. Abdominal wall hernia.

Complications secondary to bariatric surgery

  1. Protein malnutrition.
  2. Iron deficiency anemia.
  3. Folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency.
  4. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency.
  5. Zinc deficiency.

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Information | ICNS Master in Obesity and Eating Disorders Book 1