What is HPV? How do they occur and what diseases does it cause?

What is HPV?  How do they occur and what diseases does it cause?

Author: Dr. José Manuel Otero García.

The human papilloma virus (HPV)it’s a virus that there are currently more than 170
virus subtypes and is the responsible for multiple injuries and cancers of the skin and
mucous membranes (area inside the mouth, pinkish areas at the genital level).

How is it presented and what diseases can HPV cause?

  • They can manifest as skin warts (subtypes 1, 2, 4, 27, or 57), genital
    (subtypes 6 or 11).
  • These viruses can be transmitted by vaginal intercourseanal or oral, can be divided into two groups of high-risk and low-risk sexual transmission.

The Low risk HPV usually does not produce serious diseasesnevertheless
produce warts in the genital area, anus, mouth and/or throat.

High-risk HPV, on the other hand, may be causing various types of cancer,
among which are present cervical carcinomalaryngeal cancer, anal cancer, penile cancer and even prostate cancer.

There are about 14 high-grade HPV types which include 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68. Of these the subtypes, HPV16 and HPV18, cause most cancers.

It is important to say that HPV by itself does not cause cancer, it requires triggers
such as smoking, folate deficiencies, UV exposure, immunosuppression, contraceptive use (over 5 years), and pregnancy

Can I be infected with HPV?

It can easily transmitted from person to personin skin-to-skin contact, by sexual contact (penis-vagina, anus-penis, mouth-penis) contaminated sexual devices.

Currently, the prevalence of genital HPV in adults aged 18 to 59 years is approximately 45.2% in men and 39.9% in women.


Treatment includes surgical removal, cryotherapy (freezing tissue
infected), irritant or immunomodulatory drugs and laser removal.

How is it spread and how to prevent it?

To prevent HPV infection of the anogenital tract by most common high and low risk subtypes, it is recommended that boys and girls be vaccinated against HPV starting at 11 and 12 years of age. Recent studies recommend that they be vaccinated
up to 45 years of age, previously it was only eaten up to 21 years.

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Another way to prevent it is the use of condoms and oral barriers that reduce the possibility of transmission but do not prevent it completely.

Dr. José Manuel Otero García. General Urology, Neurourology and Urodynamics, endourology and percutaneous surgery

IG: @urologo_dr.otero

He graduated with honors as a medical surgeon and obtained third place in his generation at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Later he completed his internship at the National Mexican Institute of Social Security at the General Hospital of zone number 56, where he also obtained recognition for his commitment despite his short experience as an undergraduate medical intern.

  • Social service is carried out at the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City.
  • Presents the National exam for applicants to medical residencies ENARM in the year of 2000, being approved choosing the specialty of surgery, doing in the year of 2001 the first year of general surgery in the Regional General Hospital of the area in Orizaba Veracruz, where he later presents a selection exam to compete for one of the 12 places nationwide, being accepted at the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI where he finished his specialty in 2006.
  • He was working at the Mexican Social Security Institute from March 2006 to August 2013.
  • He was an assistant professor of the specialty of urology from 2006 to 2013 and is currently an assistant professor of the specialty of urology at the ABC Medical Center, recertified by the Mexican Council of Urology.
  • In 2016, he completed a high specialty in Neuro Urology and Urodynamics at the Autonomous University of Nuevo León.
  • He has more than 15 years of experience as a Urologist, and more than 6,000 patients operated on satisfactorily.

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