Driving safety. Avoid road accidents with the help of technology. To do this, the European Commission proposed last year that the cars of the future have ADAS systems, driver assistance systems that will reduce the accident rate. Its purpose, under the motto Vision Zero: save more than 25,000 lives and prevent 140,000 injuries by 2038. And by 2050, the goal is to reduce fatalities and serious injuries to practically zero.
It all starts this year 2022, in the month of July. As the General direction of traffic (DGT) during the past year, “all cars must incorporate eight driver assistance systems (ADAS) as standard”. Automated driving safety to avoid accidents. Specifically, the obligation will be for “new vehicles approved in Europe from 2022, and new ones sold from 2024”.
ADAS is the acronym for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, in Spanish, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. The idea is that the car actively helps the driver. While safety measures at the wheel such as the belt or the airbag are focused on protect people during an accident, ADAS systems want avoid those accidents before they occur. This way they protect the driver, passengers and pedestrians.
Eight are the ADAS systems of safety at the wheel that must be incorporated by European cars homologated from this year and which will be mandatory in new vehicles sold from 2024. Its function, avoid accidents by helping the driver through technology.
The ADAS systems list is the next:
- Intelligent Speed Assist (ISA)
- Rear camera with cross traffic detection
- Lane Departure Warning (LDW)
- Fatigue and / or drowsiness detector
- BAS and EBA emergency braking system
- Vehicle lock with breathalyzer
- Black box (EDR)
- Seatbelt alert in the rear seats
Smart speed assistant
We talked about the first last year when it was announced by the General Directorate of Traffic. According to its official magazine, “The ISA is a system that connects the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) with the Signal Recognition system through software, controlling its position on the road. in relation to the speed limit that governs each section ”. Specifically, “the vehicle uses cameras, radars and GPS in combination with a digital map.”
Unlike speed limiter, the ISA system adapts automatically according to the track section. You do not have to program it beforehand. In both cases, the driver cannot exceed the indicated limit.
Rear camera with traffic detection
The rear camera, obviously, helps to maneuver in reverse. But it has more advantages. They help to park and unpark, warn if there is an obstacle, fixed or mobile, or a person within 30 meters. On some models, you can stop the vehicle before the collision with obstacles or other vehicles or collisions occurs.
This ADAS system may employ a 360 degree camera. In some cases, they overlap red arrows on screen to point the direction of potential danger. For the rest, it also has progressive audible warnings and, finally, the activation of the brakes.
Lane Departure Warning
The LDW system (Lane Departing Warning) alerts you if you change lanes inadvertently. Using a camera in front of the rear-view mirror or sensors, the vehicle detects the lines that delimit the lane to distances between 60 and 100 meters.
According to the official DGT magazine, “to complement the assistance, the evolution of this technology is the LKA (Lane Keeping Aid) or LKAS (Lane Keeping Assist System), a active lane keeping system that, faced with the possibility of leaving the path delimited by the lines, is able to move the steering wheel or, in some cars, intervene on the stability control (ESP), acting on the brakes and on the wheels opposite to those that step on the line “
To prevent the driver from falling asleep at the wheel and thus losing control of the vehicle, this ADAS system has the mission of detect fatigue. For this, it has two safety measures behind the wheel. The first, the steering wheel itself. And the second, a camera. According to the General Directorate of Traffic, between 20 and 30% of accidents They occur directly or indirectly due to driver fatigue.
The steering wheel has a sensor that analyze pressure exercised by the driver. Also the movements of the hands and the changes of direction. If it detects constant corrections or sudden movements, it is activated. As for the camera, monitor facial features, especially the eyes and head movement. This system can also monitor how long the engine has been running. After two hours of driving or if it detects any anomaly, the vehicle emits a light signal on the dashboard.
Emergency braking system
BAS is the acronym for Brake Assist System and EBA means Electronic Brake Assist. They are actually the same technology, with two different names. This brake assist allows to shorten the reaction distance and is related to two vehicle systems that have been standard for years: ABS and stability control.
How does it work? Previously, using sensors, it detects the obstacles in front of us. Distinguish between pedestrians and other elements. With a light and sound warning, the driver is notified. When we brake suddenly or the intensity of the footfall is high, the system detects if that intensity is adequate. If not, the system applies the maximum braking intensity until we take our foot off the pedal. In other words, if you do not react to the warning, the braking is activated automatically. Also tighten the seat belts.
This emergency braking system in the face of unforeseen obstacles operates at speeds of between 5 and 40 kilometers per hour, the usual in residential and / or urban areas. More modern systems also activate at higher speeds.
According to data from the National Institute of Toxicology, in 2019, 45.5% of drivers who died in a traffic accident who underwent an autopsy gave positive for alcohol, drugs and / or psychotropic drugs. These data, compiled by the official magazine of the Directorate General of Traffic, support the importance of this ADAS system.
From 2022, vehicles homologated in Europe must have a pre-installed breathalyzer. In addition, it will include a start-up lock of the car that will be activated if the allowed limits are exceeded. Specifically, it analyzes a rate of between 0 and 2.5 milligrams per liter in a maximum time of 25 seconds.
The car screen will display the information. You must have internet access via WiFi and a memory to store 100,000 tests. According to the DGT, this system “incorporates fingerprint recognition, pupil, face detection or digital photos that are stored in memory to always identify the user and prevent fraud”.
Starting this summer, European cars will have black boxes, a safety device behind the wheel already used by airplanes. EDR is the acronym for Event Data Recorder, translated as event data logger. Its mission is to record more than 15 variables, in addition to the day and time.
These variables are “vehicle speed, braking, engine revolutions, frontal and side impact force, steering movements, accelerator position, operation of safety systems such as airbags, belts or certain assistants”, and so on. With these data, it is intended to obtain better analyzes in the event of an accident in order to improve driving safety introducing new technologies and improving the ones we already use today.
Specifically, the black box will record the data during the 30 seconds prior to the accident or loss and the 5 seconds afterwards. Using a computer, data can be extracted from the black box for storage. analysis and investigation of the event.
Is about one of the most implemented measures for the new vehicles of which we have mentioned previously. The seatbelt alert in the rear seats requires no explanation. Show a visual warning on the dashboard if any of the belts is not properly placed, in case that seat is occupied. The warning is also usually audible.
Depending on the model, this ADAS system is activated when the vehicle is on or when you start driving and exceed 25 kilometers per hour or more time than necessary to buckle up.
As a reminder, the seat belt is mandatory for the driver since 1974 and for rear seats since 1992. However, a security system as basic as this still remains unused, especially by passengers. Furthermore, the rear seat belts are sometimes supplemented by the rear or side airbags, depending on the vehicle.