Driving licenses for electric vehicles: types

Driving licenses for electric vehicles: types

In Spain, the most common driving licenses are the B license for cars and the A license for motorcycles. But logically they are not the only ones that exist. For the different types of vehicles that circulate on our roads it is necessary to have a specific administrative authorization.

Basic fundamentals

Thus, in our territory any driving license is valid issued in the European Union and the international driving license, although the latter is only valid for one year, and to obtain it it is essential to have a license to drive in your country. In any case, one subsection: that you are not a European citizen does not mean that you cannot legally drive in Spain.

Cards issued based on Annex 9 of the Geneva Convention or Annex 6 of the Vienna Convention, or that differ from these two models only in the adoption or suppression of non-essential rubrics, are also valid. In addition, foreigners can drive with driving licenses written in Spanish or with an official translation, and those who have special international agreements with Spain.

However, the minimum age to be able to drive in Spain is 18 years old, while there is no limit. However, these types of drivers must always try to drive with special attention and be aware of their own limitations and capacities so as not to put the integrity of people and themselves at risk. However:how are these permissions driving and what intention can they have with electric vehicles?

What differences are there

The reason is very clear: although the mechanics of a common vehicle are different from another that can use electrified systems, the power delivery will also be different. Of course; It is not the same for everyone since a battery-powered car is driven roughly like a combustion car, but they do exist certain notable differences.

Citroen Ami electric driving licenses

On the one hand, in an electric vehicle you have to use the brake much less, thanks to the fact that the car retains as soon as you lift your foot from the accelerator. This facilitates the call ‘driving a pedal‘, something really useful in town. On the other hand, the throttle response is much more linear, having a more direct response than in a combustion car. Furthermore, the theoretical questions on mechanics would be greatly simplified.

Currently there are more than ten types of existing driving licenses that can be obtained after fulfilling a series of requirements such as passing psychophysical skills, acquiring theoretical knowledge and demonstrate some skills when operating a motor vehicle in road traffic and, in some cases, in a closed circuit.

As they are

Thus, in the broad spectrum that we have within the different modalities, the truth is that drivers must specify one or more in particular for each type of vehicle, being the Drivers Regulation the one that collects the types of consent that currently exist.

In this sense, those known as a driving license, permit or license are granted by the Administration, who is not indifferent who and under what conditions circulate on public roads due to the risk that such activity entails.

In this way, it subjects the circulation of vehicles to a regime of prior administrative authorization in order to ensure the fitness of drivers to drive the vehicles. As such, this document is the one that accredits that authorization to its holder. Well from a small electrified moped that barely reaches 50 km / h to more powerful scooters, or high-end cars that can exceed 250 km / h.

Specific types and vehicles

Generally, to drive a motor vehicle (regardless of its fuel) it is required to have and demonstrate some previous knowledge. It is necessary to first pass a theoretical exam and then a practical one, as well as a medical certificate that certifies that the applicant has the physical and psychological capacities required to get behind the wheel.

As we noted, today there are more than ten types of permits and two other types of licenses, which are reserved exclusively for people with reduced mobility (LCM) and for special self-propelled agricultural vehicles (LVA). Likewise, and pointing to those who point to the new mobility, there are certain specific permissions to drive electric vehicles, while others are still optional.

For example, the one that has to do with the B1, smaller vehicles (such as the Citroën AMI), which enables people over 16 years of age to drive quadricycles and quads at a speed not exceeding 60 km / h. This is not mandatory, although there are European countries that have already put it into circulation, and that it would keep as one prior to the B. utility license.

AM, A1, A2 and A: Mopeds and electric scooters

To drive a moped, a minimum license is required to ensure that the driver meets the basic requirements to drive an electric motorcycle. This traffic permit, to drive an electric scooter, is the AM driving license, which is issued by the traffic headquarters of each city.

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Motorcycle licenses

Here we have the AM license, which is the most basic, where the minimum age to acquire it is 15 years old. In addition, this permit is only suitable for driving electric motorcycles that do not exceed 45Km / h. But what if we want to have a higher speed electrified motorcycle? Well, as happens in the rest of the categories, we will have to have other permissions for it. These are A1, A2, and A.

  • A1. The first is that it allows the driving of motorcycles and scooters with a displacement equivalent to 125 cc, and that has less than 15CV or 11kW of power. The minimum age is 16.
  • A2. The second is the intermediate step between the A1 and A permit. To acquire this card you must be over 18 years old and with a maximum power of 35 kW.
  • A. With it you can drive any type of electric motor without limitation of displacement. It is the most complete driving license for this type of electric so as not to limit yourself, in the future, when it comes to buying and driving the electrified one you want.

B and B1: Combustion and electric cars and vehicles

Next, the well-known and most popular one, the one that has to do with class B licenses, with which you can drive all types of cars and electric cars whose maximum authorized mass does not exceed 3,500 kg that are designed and constructed to transport no more than eight passengers in addition to the driver.

In addition, they can be driven motor tricycles. In order to obtain this permit, you must be 18 years old. However, it is necessary to be 21 to be able to drive motor tricycles whose maximum power exceeds 15 kW. With it you can drive different vehicles.

License B cars

  • A set of coupled vehicles made up of a towing vehicle authorized to drive with class B and a trailer with a maximum mass of up to 750 kg.
  • Motor tricycles and quadricycles.
  • 125 cc motorcycles and maximum power of 11 kW, provided that you have a minimum of three years experience with this license.

At the same time, it is possible to get hold of the B1, which is a type of license that is expressly addressed to those that are electric cars of different power, among which are electrified mopeds. The objective of this proposal is to incorporate European standards on mobility access into Spanish regulations, where the B1 permit has already been adopted and successfully tested by some of the neighboring countries.

C and D: combustion and electrified trucks and buses

As we have mentioned, they are expressly indicated for certain sectors, such as transport. There we find two types: C and D. The first is the license requested when we want to enter the world of truck and trailer driving (gasoline, batteries, hydrogen, gas …) where the minimum age to obtain this is 21 years old.

Likewise, other requirements must be met such as having the corresponding medical certificate, not having any deprivation to drive and passing the psychophysical aptitude test. Instead, and for those seeking to be conductors of bus, these need the naming permission D.

C and D bus and truck licenses

It is ideal for those who want to work in the sector, since, in general, we can drive vehicles that have been designed to transport more than 8 passengers. To obtain this card it is necessary to be in possession of the B card, be at least 24 years old and present the aptitude test.

In addition to obtaining the C Card and the D Card, drivers must also take the CAP, initials of the Certificate of professional aptitudeThis in order for truck and bus drivers to have better education and training in both driving and road safety.

L1 eB and L3e: Electric scooters

And what about scooters that run on electrified systems? Do they also require a special card? Not all. Current regulations are clear in this regard: electric VMPs, which include scooters with speeds less than or equal to 25 km / h, less than 30 kg in weight and less than 1000W of power, do not require a driver’s license to use. Although they must be governed by the civic and municipal traffic regulations of the city where they are located.

Licenses L scooters

However, not all scooters meet these characteristics, there are many on the market that exceed speed, watts, weight, and also incorporate elements such as saddles, carriers, etc. Those who do, users must have a special permit, square for this type of electric, which falls into the category L1e-B (mopeds) and L3e (motorcycles).

About them, there is a certificate for circulation that attests that the vehicle complies with the technical characteristics.